Citadel of Herat

This citadel, which has been suggested as another possible site for Alexander’s fort, is known today as the Citadel of Herat or Qal’a-ye Ikhtiyar al-Din. The name Ikhtiyar al-Din, which refers to both the eastern and western enclosures, is thought to be the name or epithet of a Kartid amir or military commander. Destroyed a second time by Timur’s army (1380), Qal’a-ye Ikhtiyar al-Din was rebuilt after Shah Rukh (reg. 1405-1444) moved his capital to Herat and began a building campaign. He reinforced the citadel in stone and fired brick and covered its exterior with glazed tiles.